Parol Agreements

Posted in Chưa được phân loại

The Parol rule of evidence is a rule in the Anglo-American common law that governs the types of evidence that parties to a contractual dispute can introduce when trying to determine the specific terms of a contract. [1] The rule also prevents parties who have reduced their consent to a final written document from subsequently introducing other evidence, such as the content of oral discussions earlier in the negotiation process, as evidence of an intention other than the terms of the contract. [2] The rule states that “extrinsic evidence is inadmissible to amend a written contract.” The term “parol” derives from the Parol or French Anglo-Norman word, which means “word of mouth” or “verbal,” and refers, in the Middle Ages, to oral arguments in a judicial proceeding. [3] In a minority of U.S. states (Florida, Colorado and Wisconsin), the parol rule of evidence is extremely strong and extrinsic evidence is always prevented from being used to interpret a contract. This is called the four-corner rule, and it is traditional/old. In a four-angle jurisdiction, there are two basic rules. First, the Tribunal will never accept parol evidence if the parties intend a comprehensive and fully integrated agreement; second, the court will only address Parol`s evidence if the available conditions are completely ambiguous. The policy is to prevent lies, to protect them from questionable veracity, to allow the parties to rely dearly on written contracts and the effectiveness of justice. In general, the Parol rule of evidence prevents the introduction of evidence of prior or simultaneous negotiations and agreements that contradict, alter or alter the contractual terms of a written contract if the written contract is to serve as a complete and definitive expression of the parties` agreement. A merger clause reinforces the presumption that the written document is complete and definitive, explicitly specifying that the written document is the definitive and complete expression of the parties` agreement. Although the parties later agreed that they had an interview that established an “incidental agreement” that was not included in the meeting. B the initial written contract and that the ancillary agreement contradicts the written contract (for example.

B by changing the delivery date or purchase price), the additional or other conditions contained in the ancillary agreement cannot be applied by the court if there is a merger clause in the written contract. There are also exceptions to the parol rule of evidence in the construction of the contract. The first exception is that there is evidence of the use of trade that is known, uniform and safe. Appleby v Pursell [1973] 2 NSWLR 879. [19] In addition, a narrow view of the admissibility of extrinsic evidence has been expressed, in which evidence of environmental circumstances is permitted only to resolve patent reasons[20] latent ambiguity[21] and inherent ambiguity in the meaning of the terms of the treaty. [8] [22] The High Court in Electricity Generation Corporation/Woodside Energy Ltd[23] took a different approach to the interpretation of commercial contracts, taking into account the “language used by the parties, the circumstances they know, and the commercial purpose or objects to be safeguarded by the contract” at the time of the “birth of the transaction”. This necessarily means taking environmental circumstances into account and indicating that the court will be able to take a more holistic approach in the future. The last view is the narrow view described in Mount Bruce Mining Pty Limited v Wright Prospecting Pty Limited.

[17] In some cases, the Parol rule does not apply to integrated written contracts.

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