Cites Agreement Pdf

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CITES is one of the largest and oldest agreements for conservation and sustainable use. Participation is voluntary and countries that have agreed to be bound by the convention are called contracting parties. Although CITES is legally binding on contracting parties, it is not a substitute for national laws. On the contrary, it provides a framework respected by each party, which must adopt its own national legislation for the implementation of CITES at the national level. Often, there is no national legislation (particularly in parties that have not ratified it) or sanctions with the seriousness of the crime and insufficient deterrence for wildlife traffickers. [3] In 2002, 50% of the contracting parties missed one or more of the four main requirements for one party: the designation of administrative and scientific authorities; laws prohibiting trade in violation of CITES; Sanctions for trade; Laws that provide for the seizure of designs. [4] Among the specific weaknesses of the text is that it does not contain guidelines for determining the “non-achievement” requested by national scientific authorities; Non-damage results require detailed information; the “budgetary effects” clause is often not rigid/specific enough to prevent CITES violations through this Article (VII); The non-report of the parties implies that the secretariat`s follow-up is incomplete; and it is not in a position to address domestic trade in listed species. Appendix III, about 170 species, are listed species after one Member State requested the assistance of other parties to CITES to control the trade of a species. Species are not necessarily threatened with extinction worldwide. In all Member States, trade in these species is only permitted with an appropriate export authorisation and a certificate of origin issued by the Member State that listed the species.

[16] Among the general constraints related to the structure and philosophy of CITES are: by design and intent, it focuses on trade at the species level and does not address habitat loss, ecosystem approaches to conservation or poverty; it aims to avoid unsustainable use instead of promoting sustainable use (which is generally contrary to the Convention on Biological Diversity), although this has changed (see Crocodile Nile, African elephant, South African case studies on the white rhinoceros in Hutton and Dickinson in 2000). It does not explicitly address market demand. [22] Indeed, CITES listings have been shown to reinforce financial speculation in some high-quality cash markets. [23] [24] [25] Funding does not provide for increased application in the field (it must request bilateral assistance for most such projects). Proposals to improve the functioning of CITES include: more regular missions of the Secretariat (not just for high-level species); Improving national legislation and enforcement; improving information by the parties (and consolidating the information of all NGOs from sources, traffic, the wildlife trade monitoring network and contracting parties); Increased emphasis on enforcement, including a police officer on the technical committee; the development of CITES action plans (similar to biodiversity action plans under the Convention on Biological Diversity), including the designation of scientific/management authorities and national implementation strategies; Incentives for reporting and timelines for both action plans and reports. CITES would benefit from access to the Global Environment Fund (WEF), funds, although this is difficult, given that the SFEs have more ecosystem approaches or other regular funds.

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